General Surgery


Breast Cancer

Although breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, it may also develop in men at very low rates. 1 in every 8 women is at risk of encountering breast cancer during her life. Age, gender , time when first menstruation and menopause have taken place, number of births, number of miscarriages and genetic factors all play an important role in breast cancer.

Symptoms of breast cancer are listed below, and if you see any of these symptoms, you must urgently refer to a specialist. But sometimes the disease shows no symptoms. Therefore, annual checks are of great importance.

  • Palpable lump in the breast or armpit (stiffness, swelling)
  • Discharge from nipple (clear or bloody fluid from a single channel)
  • A nipple becoming inverted, dimpling or disfigurement of a nipple.
  • Change in the nipple skin (peeling, scabbing)
  • Sore or rash on the skin of the breast
  • Edema, swelling and puckering in the skin of the breast (an appearance resembling orange peel)
  • Breast becoming larger or disfigured or asymmetrical or change in its skin color (rash, etc.)

Early diagnosis is crucial for breast cancer. The following methods are used to diagnose breast cancer.

  • Self-examination
  • Physical and clinical examinations
  • Mammography
  • Breast ultrasound
  • MR
  • PET CT
  • Biopsy

Today, although surgical methods are primarily employed during treatment of breast cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy can be also applied on their own or in combination with surgical methods. Method of treatment varies according to the tumor grade, type of cancer, secondary malignancies, if any, and whether the patient has entered menopause or not. Surgical applications are divided into two main groups as those aimed at keeping the breast intact and those aimed at removal of the whole breast. In the latter case, breast reconstruction is performed using plastic surgery techniques to improve the appearance of the treated site.