Orthopedics Oncology

Orthopedic Oncology is a medical branch that performs diagnosis and surgical treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors developing in muscle and skeletal systems as well as tumoral masses spread to a bone from other organs ( metastatic ).

Bone Tumors

In case of a bone tumor, the growing tumor spreads to healthy tissues, causes replacement of healthy tissues with abnormal tissues and weakens the bone, resulting in pathological factures. Cause of most bone tumors is unknown. If necessary precautions are not taken, they may cause functional failure in the organ system in which they develop, and even death.

Most bone tumors are benign and benign tumors don't threaten life. Malignant tumors may spread through body, causing metasteses. A cancer developing in a bone (primary) is different from a cancer developing in another part of the body and settling in the bone(secondary).

Malignant tumors include the following:

  • Metastatic Bone Tumors: These are malignant tumors spreading to a bone from other organs.
  • Multiple Myeloma: Multiple myeloma is the most common primary bone cancer. It is a malignant tumor of the bone marrow. It can affect any bone and is seen in patients of 50 to 70 years of age.
  • Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma is the second most common bone cancer. It often develops in knee region during puberty.
  • Ewing's sarcoma : Ewing's sarcoma is often seen between the ages of 5 and 20 and it creates bone destruction with a large soft tissue mass.
  • Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is a kind of bone tumor that develops in the form of a mass in the hips , pelvis and shoulder, and it is frequently seen between the ages of 40 and 70.

It manifests itself by a persistent and dull ache in most patients with tumor. Physical activities don't affect the pain and pain gets worse at night. Pathologic fractures can occur , and this will increase the pain . Some tumors cause fever and night sweats . Sometimes they are present with a painless mass.

Although treatment of benign bone tumors varies according to the type and age of the patient, observation is sufficient in most cases. Medical treatment relieves pain in some tumors. Some of them disappear spontaneously over time (especially in children). In some cases, doctors recommend removal of tumor, and this avoids possible pathological fractures. But in some types of tumor, even if the mass is removed, it may develop again. Some of benign tumors may also develop into malignant tumors over time.

Type and stage of tumor determines treatment of malignant bone cancers. Surgical treatment may simply involve either removal of a tumor or removal of tumor tissue along with the surrounding healthy tissue. During treatment, radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be applied in combination with other treatment methods.

Soft Tissue Tumors

Soft tissue is the name given to non-skeletal tissue surrounding various anatomical structures. Soft tissue comprises about 50% of body weight.

They often don't show any symptoms. However, loss of appetite, fever, and weight loss are among the symptoms that can be seen.

While radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used in the treatment, exact solution can be achieved by surgical intervention.