Oncology


Breast Cancer

Although breast cancer is the type of cancer that is most frequently observed in women, it may also be observed in men at a lower rate. Each one among eight women is under the risk of being exposed to breast cancer in her lifetime. In breast cancer the age, sex, age of first menstruation and menopause, number of births and abortions and genetic factors play important role.

The symptoms of the breast cancer are below listed and when one of these symptoms is observed it is necessary to urgently meet an expert. However, sometimes the disease may not show any symptoms. For this reason check-ups that should be done at least once in a year are very important.

  • Palpable mass in the breast or in the armpit (indurations, swelling)
  • Flix coming from the nipple (bloody or transparent coloured from single channel)
  • Internal withdrawal, collapse or formal distortion in the nipple
  • Changes in the nipple skin (deglowing, incrustation)
  • Lesion or rubor on breast skin
  • Oedema, panicula or internal withdrawal of the breast skin (orange peel image)
  • Growth, formal disorder or asymmetry in the breast or change of its colour (rubor etc)

In breast cancer early diagnosis is very important. In the diagnosing of the breast cancer the following methods are applied.

  • Self-examination
  • Physical and clinical examination
  • Mammography
  • Breast ultrasonography
  • MR
  • PET CT
  • Biopsy

Although today mainly surgical methods are used in breast cancer treatment, Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and hormone therapy may be applied independently or in conjunction with surgical method. The form of the treatment is shaped according to the degree of the tumour, cancer type, the secondary cancers, if any, and information of menopause. The surgical applications are divided into two main groups as those that aim protecting the breast without removal and that aim removing the entire breast. In applications that aim removing the entire breast, Breast Reconstruction is made again instead of the breast that is removed with plastic surgery techniques.