Cardiovascular Surgery

Heart Valve Surgery

Heart valves are structures that prevent blood from flowing back after it is sent forward. In the case of conditions which prevent blood from going forward or cause it to flow back, the heart is put under pressure and problems occur in both the heart and organs requiring blood.

Heart valve diseases can be congenital or they may arise from rheumatic diseases experienced in childhood, senile calcification, various infections, and degeneration of the valve.

This condition seen in heart valves increases the burden of the heart so it can cause irremediable impairments in the structure of the heart, if it lasts for a long time. The most common symptoms of heart valve diseases are:

  • Quick fatigue
  • Palpitation
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling of the legs
  • Clotting
  • Rhythm disorders

In heart valve condition, the first treatment option is repair of the valve. However, if repair is not possible, artificial heart valves are implanted into the patients. If medical condition of the patient doesn't allow open surgery, the valve can be implanted by entering through groin artery, called TAVÄ°.

Metal valves or bioprosthetic valves partially containing organic matter are used as artificial heart valves. Bioprosthetic valves have an important advantage of not using blood-thinning drugs but they are not as stable as mechanic valves. Surgery may be needed because of degradation of a bioprosthetic valve within 1-15 years.

Basically, we can divide heart valve diseases into 4 categories.

  • Aortic Valve Stenosis: Advanced age-related development of degeneration may be congenital or rheumatic fever.
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Unlike Aortic stenosis, although there is no restriction in forward flow of blood, the blood flows back after the heart beat.
  • Mitral Valve Stenosis: It is the most common valvular disease after rheumatic fever disease. Mitral valve stenosis is the most common disorder in all valve diseases. There is a problem in flow of blood from left ventricle to left atrium so the blood is prevented from flowing forwards.
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency: .In mitral valve insufficiency, the heart is exposed to pressure because of increased blood buildup inside the heart.