ENT (Ear, Nose & Throat)


Sinusitis

Sinusitis is inflammation of the cavities inside bone structures surrounding the nose. All the sinuses open into the nose through a hole. These holes opening to the nose also provide ventilation of the sinuses.

The nose and sinuses are areas of inflammation caused by bacteria and viruses settling there. There are always bacteria and viruses that may cause inflammation in these areas and if ventilation of sinuses is disturbed, sinus inflammation develops. Other than bacteria and viruses, fungi also cause inflammation, though rarely. Sinusitis mostly occurs after upper respiratory tract infections such as common cold, influenza. In this type of infections, sinus holes opening into the nose are closed due to edema, preventing sinus secretions from draining into the nose. Ventilation of the sinuses also deteriorates. In this case, sinus inflammation develops easily. Apart from this, conditions including allergies blocking sinus openings, nasal bone curvature, hypertrophy, foreign body and adenoid facilitate the development of sinusitis.

Signs of acute and chronic sinusitis are different from each other. Acute sinusitis has more severe symptoms. Pain is one of the most disturbing complaints of a patient. It usually increases by leaning forward. In addition, symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, reduced sense of smell, nasal discharge, fever, pain in the jaw and teeth, bad breath, nosebleeds, swelling of the face and eyelids can be seen. Cough is a symptom of both acute and chronic sinusitis.

Although chronic sinusitis has longer lasting complaints, it is milder. It causes less frequent pain, sometimes no pain. Most patients complain about postnasal drip and accordingly sore throat and cough. Other symptoms are stuffy nose, feeling of fullness on the face and bad breath. Patients with chronic sinusitis may sometimes experience acute periods.

The goal of sinusitis treatment is to destroy bacteria and open sinuses' holes opening to the nose. Bacteria are destroyed by antibiotics.

In case of no response to medications, presence of other factors facilitating sinusitis is investigated and an appropriate treatment is applied. However, surgery may be required occasionally. Drug therapy is also applied first in the case of chronic sinusitis. However, in case of an anatomical problem such as frequent allergies, or curvature of bone and cartilage or hypertrophy, it requires surgical treatment.