We can divide this surgery branch into two as ""Plastic and Reconstructive""Surgery and ""Aesthetic Surgery"".
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (Reconstruction and Repair Surgery)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery can also be designated as reconstruction and repair surgery. In general, it is a branch that tries to remedy congenital or acquired anomalies, deformities and functional disorders. In summary, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery tries to repair all kinds of defects (cavities) affecting the skin, underneath the skin and bones in the entire body surface.
Its main areas of interest are:
- Facial disfigurement and asymmetry
- Congenital masses on the face
- Cleft lip and palate
- Disfigurement of jaw, face and skull bones
- Jaw closing disorders
- The absence of the pinna , prominent ears and other disfigurement
- Nasal defects, tumors, ruptures
- Facial bone and soft tissue traumas
- Bone defects-fractures- disfigurement and functional disorders caused by traffic accidents, tumors and for other reasons
- Head and neck tumors and repair of these defects
- Absence of breast, breast asymmetry or excess breast tissue
- Breast reconstruction after cancer
- Gynecomastia (large breasts in men)
- Congenital anomalies of genital organs
- Repair of genital organs, replantation of severed organs,
- Chest and abdominal wall defects
- Hand surgery (Trauma , tumors , finger transfers, finger repairs- extension, etc.)
- Hand and foot defects and deformities
- Peripheral nerve problems ( trauma , neuropathies, defects, masses)
- Skin and soft tissue tumors
- Acute burn and post-burn deformities, convulsions, shrinkage, damage to the soft tissues caused by electrical and chemical substances
- Wounds on the skin and subcutaneous wounds caused by various infections , radiation and other effects
- Chronic wounds ( pressure ulcers , venous ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers , etc.)
- Losses, deformities, pathological events (tumors , cysts , infection, etc.) in bone (especially face, head and hand bones) and cartilage structure (such as ear and nose cartilages) are also within the field of plastic surgery profession.
Besides conventional surgical methods, it can benefit from microsurgery, laser systems, endoscopy and a variety of chemical agents and drugs for treatment.
Aesthetic Surgery ( Cosmetic Surgery )
It is a sub-branch of plastic surgery. Aesthetic (or cosmetic ) surgery is engaged in operations and interventions performed to ensure that body image acquires a more beautiful and perfect look. It deals with esthetic problems, rather than a medical problem.
These are operations that are conducted to ensure that the patient acquires a more aesthetic and proportionate body. Relevant parts of the body (nose, breast, and abdomen) are made more perfect and aligned with environmental contours environment based on anatomical and aesthetic dimensions. In this surgery, fat injections and a variety of implants can be utilized.
All plastic surgeons are also trained in cosmetic surgery during their training to be a specialist and they are the only surgeons authorized to perform these operations.
Cosmetic surgery requires a long training and experience. This kind of operations require both surgical and artistic talents.
In cosmetic surgery, not only aesthetic problems but also medical problems are solved. For example, surgical correction of an obese body or breasts grown up to gigantic size (gigantomasty) resolves both medical and aesthetic problems. Besides aesthetic correction, the function of an organ is also extremely important. For example: in aesthetic nose surgery (rhinoplasty) shape and breathing problems should be corrected together.
Areas of interest of Aesthetic Surgery are:
- Aesthetic and functional nose reshaping (Rhinoplasty, septorhinoplasty)
- Face Renewal (face lift - revisions on the eyelid and around the mouth, treatment of wrinkles)
- Face and forehead lift
- Brow lift
- Aesthetics of eyelid
- Prominent ear and correction of other aesthetic problems in prominent ear
- Chin augmentation and reduction operations
- Removal of skin scarring and irregularities,
- Hair transplantations
- Laser applications (Face peeling, removal of stains and vascular malformations
- Aesthetic breast operations: Augmentation, reduction and lift
- Operations aiming at reduction of excessive skin-subcutaneous fat tissue (liposuction - lipectomy)
- Tummy tuck (Abdominoplasty)
- Leg contour correction (by fat removal, injections or leg implants)
- Contour adjustments using implants (the pro *** s applied to soft tissue) (hip and thigh implants, male pectoral (chest) implants, leg implants, etc.)
- Skin care and interventions